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Economy, communications

The leading sectors of Mexican economy are manufacturing, trade and mining. Noticeable development was achieved in electric power industry, several branches of engineering, metallurgical, chemical and food industries. GDP of agriculture, livestock, fishing and hunting is reducing every year: in 1970 - 25%, in 1980 - 7% in 2012 (third quarter) - 3.7%. Major role in the Mexican agriculture plays growing of cereals, legumes and oilseeds. Mexico is one of the largest manufacturers of balanced feed for livestock, poultry, pets, and food additives. Mexico is one of the world's largest producers of fresh and frozen fruits, vegetables, meat, fruit juices, coffee and drinks. Livestock in Mexico is mainly of extensively-pasture direction. Priority is given to stock-rearing. Also there are farms for the breeding of horses, mules, sheep, goats, pigs. In the third quarter of 2012 the extractive industry was about 10 % of GDP; supplying of electricity, water and gas of consumers - 1.2% of GDP, construction - 6.7% of GDP. Mexico takes leading places in the world on silver and gold deposits, the 4th place by quantity of the confirmed deposits of copper, the 5th by molybdenum and the 6th by zinc. The output of mining production of Mexico in ten years increased by 5.7 times (in terms of money). Especially were the high rates of precious metals production. In 2012 gold mining increased by 3,6%, in comparison with previous year, and reached 87 tons, silver – for 2.4% (4.3 thousand tons), copper – for 12.9% (500 thousand tons). Production of these metals makes the main share of structure of the mining industry of Mexico: 26% silver, 22% gold, 18% copper, 7% zinc. Mexico is one of the largest producers of crude oil, and also one of growing consumers and importers of gas and oil products. The problem of decreasing of hydrocarbonic raw materials production becomes aggravated every year. From 2004 for 2012 daily oil production decreased in Mexico from 3.3 million barrels to 2.5 million barrels a day. Despite it the oil income of the state increased due to growth of the world prices for oil. In 2012 Mexico exported hydrocarbonic products (crude oil, oil products, petrochemical products and natural gas) for the sum of $ 52.2 bln. US, from which $ 46.8 bln. US were the share of crude oil, and import of these products made $ 31,3 bln. US. Manufacturing industry gives 18.3% of gross domestic product. Its main components are: the food industry, which made 22.3% (in the third quarter 2012)of manufacturing industry of Mexico, production of vehicles - 18.2%, metallurgical industry – 8,5%, the chemical industry – 8,1%, production of drinks and tobacco – 5.3%, other types of production – 37.6%. The main part in the vehicles production industry is represented by automotive industry which for the last two decades turned into the largest branch of the Mexican economy of which 4% of gross domestic product of the country and 23% of export are the share.

In 2012 2884 thousand cars were produced, that is 12,8% more, than in previous year. The export increased by 9,9%, exceeded 2336 thousand cars that made 83,4% of their production. The aircraft manufacturing enterprises in Mexico are actively involved in the foreign trade operations. By the amount of export of aviation production ($ 5,4 bln. US) in 2012 Mexico was on the 15th place in the world. Metallurgy is one of the most important directions of the Mexican industry. For the last three decades outputs increased. From 2001 to 2011 the production of steel in Mexico increased from 13,3 million tons to 18,1 million tons. The volume of the produced steel by the end of the analyzed period amounted to 0,7% of gross domestic product of Mexico, 3,9% of manufacturing industry. Mexico is on the second place in the Latin American region, after Brazil, and on the 13th place in the world on production of steel. Mexico is the largest producer and the consumer of chemical and petrochemical production. Despite reduction of local production of chemical production, the volume of its national consumption increased from 23 million tons in 2007 to 40 million tons in 2011. The most significant component of Mexican national economy is the tertiary sector, which gross domestic product of the country (in the third quarter 2012) amounted to 62,3%. In the structure of this group are included: the trade that amounted to 16,2%; real estate and its rent services – 9,6%; transport, post and warehouse services – 7,1%; financial services and insurance – 3,6%; mass media – 3%; educational services - 4,8%; professional, scientific and technical services – 3%; services of health care and social service, activity of governmental bodies of 3,9%. For the last two decades, the trade especially foreign trade became the main sphere of development of Mexican economy. The volume of a foreign trade turnover increased from $ 116 bln. US 1993 to $700 bln. US in 2011. However the structure of participants of foreign trade during this time didn't undergo considerable changes.



Banknotes of 1000, 500, 100, 50, 20 peso and coins of 10, 5, 2, 1 centavo (cents) are in circulation. 1 peso = 100 centavos (cents). It is necessary to be attentive upon purchases: the peso is designated by the same sign of $, as the American dollar (the prices at restaurants and shops are usually specified in Mexican pesos). In many places, in order to avoid confusion, dollars are designated by "USD", and peso - "M.N". ("moneda nacional" - in the lane "national currency"). The payment by credit cards (Visa, Master Card and American Express) is available. We recommend taking US dollars.
Banks work from 9.00 AM till 5.00 PM - during working days. Also there are the offices of banks that work on Saturday from 9.00 AM till 1.00 PM. On Sundays banks don't work.
The banking institutions that have round the clock working ATMs, designate it at entrance by a special sign.
The currency can also be exchanged in big hotels, at the airports, at currency exchange offices.



For internal calls within the territory of Mexico it is better to buy a local sim-card. One of the largest local communications operators is “Telcel” Company. In the country it is used the following formats of mobile communication: 3G, GSM 1900 and 2100. Trunk communication (radio telephones) is also widespread.

To call from Russia to Mexico you should dial 8 – 10 - 52 (a code of Mexico) - city code - subscriber's number. If you call from the mobile phone, you should dial + 52 (a code of Mexico) - a city code - subscriber's number. Sometimes when calling on Mexican mobile phones, it is necessary to add 1 after a code of the country +52 1.

To call from Mexico to Russia you should dial 00 (the international code) - 7 (a code of Russia) - city code - subscriber's number. If you call from mobile phone, dial + 7 (a code of Russia) - city code - subscriber's number.